Phylloxera. You what! This nasty louse was the cause of disaster and destruction in the 19th Century across Europe. The European vine known as vinifera could not stand up to this louse eating through its roots and exposing them to bacteria and fungi resulting in decay and disease. This changed viticulture practices all over Europe.
There are only few places in the world that aren’t affected by phylloxera and have strict quarantine procedures to ensure the nasty little louse doesn’t get through. These are Chile, South Australia much of Argentina and Hungry, this could be to do with the natural protection these areas have such as Chile with the Pacific Ocean, the Atacama and the Andes!